ماجرای اینترنت طبقاتی چیست؟ همه با هم برابرند، اما برخی برابرترند

In the animation called “Ralph Breaks the Internet”, a character named Ralph, who is for a video game, when he sees that there is nothing he can do to save his life, his friend and their favorite game against the decisions of the executives of internet and game companies. He shuts down the Internet and goes from one place to another without any permission and without any access, and so-called “breaks the Internet” so that he can reach his goal and save himself. It seems that these days the Internet network in Iran needs someone like Ralph to be able to do something without permission and without having access levels, so that the decision-makers about the Internet will think about the issue of Internet classes. One of the clauses of the so-called protection plan was about the classification of the society based on the level of access to the Internet; A plan that has been forgotten for some time; Because at present, it has practically reached the implementation stage without being approved anywhere. However, the issue of internet classification is not a topic that was stated for the first time in this plan, and of course its roots go back a long time. It should also not be forgotten that part of the classification of the Internet is currently being implemented; The fact that it is being raised again in the current era – this time by the members of parliament – is related to the widening of this issue and the possibility of its implementation among members of the society. But what is the story of class internet and what does this project want to do? Since when was it talked about and what ups and downs has it gone through until today? The main reasons for filtering sites and internet platforms in different countries can be included in four general divisions: political issues, social issues, security issues, and ethical issues. Currently, filtering in Iran is done in all 4 categories and its range starts from vulgar websites and extends to platforms that pose a threat to national security from the point of view of governance. The problem of filtering in the country has a long history that is beyond the scope of this article, but it is enough to mention that different governments have tried to test various filtering methods and the issue of Internet classification is the last issue that has been talked about for several years but has not been implemented. It seems that now it is closer to the jugular veins of Iranian users than ever. An overview of the decisions about the leveling of the Internet, we must go back to the past; The discussion of legal VPN and classification of filtering and the Internet goes back to the past years, even the early 90s. But in 2018 and 2019, this plan was mostly seen in the media and speeches of officials. The 11th government initially tried to do something with smart filtering so that some pages are filtered and others are available on one platform. In fact, the 11th government predicted in the smart filtering plan that when dealing with a page, instead of filtering the entire address, a part of it will be blocked and access to other pages will be free. The smart filtering feature was used to the extent that the HTTPS protocol was not used in most applications, and after this issue, a scheme called asymmetric filtering was proposed. Asymmetric filtering meant that people only got access to a certain level of the Internet after authentication. Although this plan was denied at that time, i.e. December 2016, by the Minister of Communications at that time, Mohammad Javad Azari Jahormi, but it does not seem that its details have been forgotten. “Mohammed Javad Azari Jahormi”, then Minister of Communications, appeared in the parliament in September 2018 to answer the questions of the representatives. In this public meeting, many topics were discussed about filtering; One of the most important of them was “filtering classification”. The Minister of Communications said clearly in this regard: “The level of internet filtering and system cannot be equal for a university professor or a student or a reporter.” In November 2018, “Abolhasan Firouzabadi”, the head of the National Center for Virtual Space, announced the preparation of a regulation with the cooperation of the prosecutor’s office to legalize the use of VPN in the country. He said that based on this regulation, VPN sales operators will be formed so that people and organizations can use VPN if needed. An issue that caused a lot of noise at the same time and was accompanied by the opposition of cyberspace users. “Javad Javednia”, the head of the cyberspace deputy of the Attorney General’s Office, also announced in April 2019 that the draft of the legal issues of granting these VPNs has been drafted in the judiciary and most of it has been approved by the working group for determining criminal cases. The Secretary of the Supreme Council of Cyber ​​Space mentioned this plan again in March 2019 and stated that legal VPN management will soon be implemented in the country. On April 13, 1400, the head of the inactive defense center once again implicitly mentioned the issue of internet classification. He said in a TV program: “The National Information Network is not looking to cut off access to the “International Internet”, but it is supposed to create a hierarchy of access.” In the same month, it was announced that YouTube will be unfiltered for some sections of the society. Although this news was confirmed at that time by the Ministry of Communications and the Prosecutor’s Office, this never happened. In the winter of 1400, on the sidelines of the opening of the optical fiber development project in the Ministry of Communications, the head of the National Center for Virtual Space, in response to Digiato’s question about the legal VPN plan, announced that this plan will be pursued at the beginning of next year: “The said plan has continued and has not been stopped. . “New talks have been held and we will have interactions with the Ministry of Communications in this regard.” He also said that we will pursue legal VPN discussion from next year.” Now we have reached the same promise next year and it seems that Firouzabadi’s words are going to come true. Previously, the Minister of Communications of the 13th government also spoke about the leveling of the Internet. Issa Zarepour mentioned this issue in the Jahanara TV program and said in July 1401: “During the election, the president mentioned that there is no place in the world where the internet is available to a child or a university professor. be Naturally, these have different needs. Providing children’s internet is actually a kind of specialization and we have started with children first. This has nothing to do with the labels that were put on the protection plan for a few months and said that they were going to cut off the internet. “No one in the Islamic Republic of Iran wants to cut off the Internet.” It should be said that many experts consider the issue of children’s Internet and its supply as the first serious step in the classification of the Internet. It goes without saying that it was in July 1401 that Javad Hosseini Kia, a member of the working group for determining examples of computer criminal content, stated about the state of Internet filtering: “Contrary to some opinions about filtering, we are removing Internet filtering for professors and faculty members of certain universities. . This project will be implemented in a short period of time and as a test. This official statement was the last reliable news about the class internet issue until a while ago and just one or two months after it was raised, the internet situation in the country has completely changed due to the turbulent conditions that have occurred and it seems that the experimental plan that It was spoken, it has never seen the color of implementation; At least in the way that Hosseini Kia said in his interview with ISNA. However, it seems that now in Aban 1401, the problem of class internet is more prominent than ever. Especially since a few days after Hosseini Kia’s speech, one of the steps in this matter was taken, i.e. applying Safesearch in Google search engine results. This feature actually gives Google search results a state as if all internet users in the country are “children”. Search engines have a feature called Safe Search to prevent users from accessing inappropriate content. The activation of this possibility on the network is provided by Google and network subscribers cannot disable it. The activation of this feature in Iran is the biggest step that the new government has taken in order to level the Internet, and the head of the Ministry of Communications claims that this is a demand of families. In September 1401, the former head of the Central Bank, Abdul Naser Hemmati, criticized this policy by criticizing the performance of the new government and going towards the stratification of the Internet. Class Internet and Social Discrimination and Digital Inequality As mentioned in this brief history, at the beginning of the twelfth government this issue was known as “Asymmetric Filtering” and a little later a concept called Legal VPN was proposed and now the term Class Internet for it. It is used more. It doesn’t matter what name we use for this policy, the important thing is that the definition of internet stratification will have many consequences that we should not ignore. Class internet eventually leads to social and digital discrimination. Experts’ predictions indicate that the result of this restriction and blocking is to reach a model of the Internet similar to the network that exists in China, which is offered and used by users with special and unique coordinates and features. Regardless of the existence of this discrimination, removing the filter for certain groups with the reason and logic that they are active in a specific work area such as academic centers or the medical and media fields and need unlimited access to information; It provides the basis for applying filtering for other layers. In fact, class internet will bring with it permission and green light for general and legal filtering for members of the society. Needless to say, on the other hand, some legal VPN fans believe that the issue of filtering useful networks can be slowly resolved through this path and gradual releases. Basically, the discussion of filtering can be examined from two sides, one for online businesses and the other for ordinary citizens. Almost all paid services and many services are blocked for Iranian people and businesses, and in such a situation, using a VPN and a filter breaker is a requirement for the survival of Iranian internet businesses, each of which is somehow dependent on these services. For general citizens, there is also an issue such as free access to information, which has been violated in Iran for many years, and as it was said, even in the past year, an issue such as Google’s safesearch has been implemented, and the entire nation of Iran has been considered children, according to the Ministry of Communications. Applying the safesearch mode in the Google search engine is a kind of Internet classification for all Iranian users, because the display of searches is different for people who have a filter breaker and people who don’t have a filter breaker. Although the former Minister of Communications, Jahormi, considered this issue unrelated to the stratification of the Internet, it seems that his theory is not very correct. Parts of the class internet project that have been implemented so far except for applying safesearch in search engines, many news agencies have already received unfiltered internet from the government. Also, during the twelfth government, free and unfiltered internet was given to some journalists, which was practically the beginning of class internet among the people. Children’s Internet itself and children’s SIM cards also bring forward the leveling and classification of the Internet in a way. There are also rumors based on the existence of the internet called “organizational internet”, which is given to government officials and members of parliament, etc., so that they can walk freely on the internet without using a filter breaker. The argument for the presence of these people in filtered social networks is that they should participate in the soft media war as political elites; To explain this issue, it is better to have a review of Behrouz Mohebi’s speech on this matter: “If I, the person in charge, do not answer there, the enemy will completely take over the field. If I don’t go, I have completely surrendered the field, and the enemy is also there, writing lies, crossing, and so on. I must be responsible. But we have to solve this paradox anyway.” Javad Javednia had previously compared such a space to virtual space and told Digiato: “He considers the current virtual space to be a battlefield where trained soldiers must be present. Analysis in cyberspace should not happen to fall into the hands of the enemy; The analysis should take place outside this space and then the program entered this space and performed the operation. When an attack is planned on enemy territory, a group is responsible for holding the main embankment. A group will go to operate and come back. It is never the case that we let go of the main embankment and move forward because we will fall away from that side and the enemy will attack us from behind. We need to be foreign in social networks, but we don’t want to make robots and we want to speak the truth, and we need to do this with trained people.” In fact, it seems that cyberspace decision-makers believe that being on the Internet is equal for everyone, but some are more equal and must be present in this space to participate in the soft media war. Many of these people consider China’s filtering and monitoring system as their model and believe that Iran can also achieve such a system, which from their point of view is a kind of self-sufficiency in the Internet discussion. It must be said that China has used a complex system of filters and an army of tens of thousands of human controllers who monitor the actions of Internet users in this country. Internet censorship in China has a history of many years and the Chinese government started its struggle with filtering 100 sites almost since 1996 and intensified it in 2002. Digiato previously published a video about the state of the Internet in China, which you can watch more closely these days, as many current decision-makers seem to see this type of Internet surveillance as an ideal situation. Watch video on YouTube Digiato: Watch video on Digiato cameras:

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